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Bharatanatyam – Classical Dance of India – Part I

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photo via wikipedia

Bharatanatyam, a pre-famous Indian established move shape apparently the most established traditional move legacy of India is viewed as mother of numerous other Indian established move frames. Routinely a performance move performed just by ladies, it started in the Hindu sanctuaries of Tamil Nadu and in the long run prospered in South India. Hypothetical base of this frame follows back to ‘Natya Shastra’, the antiquated Sanskrit Hindu content on the performing expressions.

A type of illustrative story of Hindu religious topics and profound thoughts acted out by artist with incredible footwork and amazing motions its execution collection incorporates nrita, nritya and natya. Accompanists incorporate a vocalist, music and especially the master who coordinates and leads the execution. It additionally keeps on motivating a few artistic expressions including works of art and models beginning from the breathtaking sixth to ninth century CE sanctuary figures.


History and Evolution

As per the Hindu custom the name of the move frame was determined by joining two words, “Bharata” and Natyam’ where ‘Natyam in Sanskrit implies move and “Bharata” is a mental aide containing ‘bha’, “ra” and “ta” which individually signifies “bhava” that is feeling and emotions; “raga” that is tune; and “tala” that is cadence. In this way, customarily the word alludes to a move shape where bhava, raga and tala are communicated. The hypothetical base of this move frame, which is likewise alluded as Sadir, follow back to antiquated Indian theatrologist and musicologist, Bharata Muni’s Sanskrit Hindu content on the performing expressions called ‘Natya Shastra’. The content’s initially total rendition was apparently finished between 200 BCE to 200 CE, however such time allotment additionally changes between 500 BCE and 500 CE.

photo via wikipedia

As indicated by legends Lord Brahma uncovered Bharatanatyam to the sage Bharata who at that point encoded this blessed move frame in Natya Shastra. The content that comprises of thousands of verses organized in various parts isolates move in two particular structures, in particular “nrita” that is unadulterated move involving artfulness of hand developments and motions, and “nritya” that is solo expressive move that includes articulations. As per Russian researcher Natalia Lidova, ‘Natya Shastra’ explains a few speculations of Indian traditional moves including that of Tandava move, standing stances, fundamental strides, bhava, rasa, techniques for acting and motions.

One of the five extraordinary stories of Tamil Literature, “Silappatikaram” (~2nd century CE) has an immediate reference to this move shape. The Shiva sanctuary of Kanchipuram that is embellished with carvings going back to a period between sixth to ninth hundreds of years CE shows the improvement of this move frame by around the mid first thousand years CE. Numerous old Hindu sanctuaries are adorned with models of Lord Shiva in Bharatanatyam move postures.

The eastern gopuram of the twelfth century Thillai Natarajar Temple, Chidambaram, of Tamil Nadu committed to Lord Shiva bears figures delineating 108 stances of Bharatanatyam, alluded as karanas in ‘Natya Shastra’, that are complicatedly cut in little rectangular boards. Another outstanding model can be found in the Cave 1 of Karnataka’s Badami give in sanctuaries going back to the seventh century where a 5 feet tall figure of Lord Shiva is delineated as Nataraja doing Tandava move. The 18 arms of the Shiva form communicates mudras or hand motions that are a piece of Bharatanatyam.


Relationship with Devadasi Culture

Beginning in Hindu sanctuaries of Tamil Nadu and adjacent locales, Bharatanatyam soon flourished in other South Indian sanctuaries. As per a few sources the Devadasi culture going back to 300 BCE to 300 CE developed under the sponsorship of the royals that saw the sanctuary artists called Devadasis, who were devoted to serve the Lord as dasis or workers, playing out the move frame. In the long run the Devadasi culture turned into a necessary piece of customs in South Indian sanctuaries.

photo via wikipedia
Sri Rukmani Devi, the famous Bharatanatyam dancer as she appeared on October 6, 1940.

Albeit antiquated messages and models demonstrate presence of such culture and nearness of moving young ladies as additionally selective quarters for ladies in sanctuary compound, there is no solid confirmation either archaeological or content based that can show the Devadasis as whores or mistresses as blamed by some provincial Indologists. In the wake of breaking down confirmations, Davesh Soneji, a student of history on execution expressions and a specialist on Bharatanatyam, presumed that concubine moving marvel started amid the Nayaka time of Tamil Nadu at some point around late sixteenth or seventeenth century.


Resistance and Ban During Colonial Rule

The eighteenth century saw development of lead of the East India Company took after by setting up of British pilgrim govern in the nineteenth century. Such improvements saw decay of different traditional move frames which were subjected to disdainful fun and demoralization including Bharatanatyam that through the nineteenth century stayed restrictive to Hindu sanctuaries.

photo via wikipedia

In the long run social and financial conditions related with Devadasi culture included with disdain and abominable state of mind from the Christian evangelists and British authorities, who held the Devadasis of South India and nautch young ladies of North India as prostitutes, disfavored such frameworks. Besides the Christian teachers propelled against move development in 1892 to stop such practice. The Madras Presidency under the British provincial government prohibited the custom of moving in Hindu sanctuaries in 1910 and with this the well established convention of performing Bharatanatyam in Hindu sanctuaries additionally arrived at an end.

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