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Biography of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was a standout amongst the most compelling autonomy activists amid India’s opportunity battle. He was likewise a prominent essayist, artist and columnist. He was an unmistakable political pioneer of the Indian National Congress and was chosen as Congress President in 1923 and 1940. Regardless of being a Muslim, Azad regularly remained against the radicalizing arrangements of other unmistakable Muslims pioneers like Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Azad was the principal instruction pastor of autonomous India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was after death granted ‘Bharat Ratna’, India’s most astounding regular citizen respect, in 1992.


Early Life and Education

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was conceived Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin on November 11, 1888 in Mecca, Islam’s principle focus of journey. His mom was the little girl of a rich Arabian Sheik and his dad, Maulana Khairuddin, was a Bengali Muslim of Afghan starting point. His progenitors came to India amid the rule of Mughal Emperor Babar, from Heart, Afghanistan. Azads were the descendent of famous Ulama or researchers of Islam. In 1890, he came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata) alongside the family.

Maulana Azad had his underlying formal instruction in Arabic, Persian and Urdu with philosophical introduction and afterward reasoning, geometry, arithmetic and variable based math. He additionally learnt English dialect, world history, and legislative issues all alone. Maulana Azad had a characteristic slant towards composing and this brought about the begin of the month to month magazine “Nairang-e-Alam” in 1899. He was eleven years of age when his mom passed away. After two years, at thirteen years old, Azad was hitched to youthful Zuleikha Begum.


Political Career

Early Revolutionary Activities

In Egypt, Azad came into contact with the devotees of Mustafa Kemal Pasha who were distributing a week by week from Cairo. In Turkey, Maulana Azad met the pioneers of the Young Turks Movement. After his arrival to India from a broad visit of Egypt, Turkey, Syria and France, Azad met noticeable Hindu progressives Sri Aurobindo Ghosh and Shyam Sundar Chakraborty. They helped in creating radical political perspectives and he started to take an interest in the Indian patriot development. Azad savagely condemned the Muslim lawmakers who were more disposed towards the public issues without concentrating on the national intrigue. He likewise dismisses the hypotheses of public separatism supported by the All India Muslim League.

Azad, roused by the enthusiasm of Indian and additionally outside progressive pioneers, began distributing a week after week called “Al-Hilal” in 1912. The week after week was a stage to assault the arrangements of the British Government and highlight the issues confronted by the regular Indians. The paper turned out to be popular to the point that its course figures went up to 26,000 duplicates. The exceptional message of patriotism and patriotism mixed with religious duty picked up its acknowledgment among the masses.

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Be that as it may, these improvements bothered the British Government and in 1914, the British Government put a prohibition on the week by week. Resolute by the move, Maulana Azad, couple of months after the fact, propelled another week by week, called “Al-Balagh”. Neglected to put a restriction on the compositions of Maulana Azad, the British Government then at long last chosen to oust him off Calcutta in 1916. At the point when Maulana Azad achieved Bihar, he was captured and put under house capture. This detainment proceeded till December 31, 1919. After his discharge on January 1, 1920, Azad come back to the political air and effectively taken an interest in the development. Truth be told, he kept on composing provocative articles against the British Government.


Pre-Independence Activities

As an extremist requesting the reestablishment of the Caliph in Istanbul, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad came locally available with the Khilafat development amid 1920. He wound up plainly required with the Indian opportunity battle through the Non-participation development started by Gandhi, of which the Khilafat issue was a major some portion of. He wholeheartedly upheld the standards of the non-collaboration development and in the process wound up plainly attracted to Gandhi and his reasoning. Albeit at first doubtful of Gandhi’s proposition to dispatch a heightened drive against the British Raj requesting autonomy, he later joined the endeavors.

He voyaged everywhere throughout the nation giving discourses and driving different projects of the development. He worked intimately with Vallabhbahi Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad. On August 9, 1942, Maulana Azad was captured alongside a large portion of the Congress administration. Their detainment gone on for a long time and they were discharged in 1946. Amid that time, the possibility of a free India had hardened and Maulana headed the Constituent Assembly Elections inside Congress and in addition drove the transactions with the British Cabinet mission to talk about the terms of autonomy. He passionately restricted segment in view of religion and was profoundly harmed when the thought went ahead to offer ascent to Pakistan.


Post-Independence Activities

Amid the viciousness that ejected taking after parcel of India, Maulana Azad guaranteed to assume up the liability for the security of Muslims in India. Towards this, Azad visited the viciousness influenced locales of fringes of Bengal, Assam, Punjab. He helped in building up the exile camps and guaranteed continuous supply of nourishment and other essential materials. It was accounted for that in the vital Cabinet gatherings both Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Maulana Azad conflicted over the safety efforts in Delhi and the Punjab.

The part and commitment of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad couldn’t be neglected. He was delegated as India’s initially Minister for Education and accepted in the Constituent Assembly to draft India’s constitution. Under Maulana Azad’s residency, various measures were attempted to advance essential and optional instruction, logical training, foundation of colleges and advancement of roads of research and higher reviews.

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Relationship with the Indian National Congress

While extending his support to Mahatma Gandhi and non-participation development, Maulana Azad joined the Indian National Congress in January 1920. He managed the uncommon session of Congress in September 1923 and was said to be the most youthful man chosen as the President of the Congress.

Maulana Azad developed as a vital national pioneer of the Indian National Congress Party. He additionally filled in as an individual from the Congress Working Committee (CWC) and in the workplaces of general secretary and president on various events. In 1928, Maulana Azad embraced the Nehru Report, figured by Motilal Nehru. Strangely, the Motilal Nehru Report was seriously scrutinized by various Muslim identities required with the flexibility development. Rather than Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Azad additionally upheld for the consummation of particular electorates in view of religion and required a solitary country focused on secularism. In 1930, Maulana Azad was captured for infringement of the salt laws as a component of Gandhiji’s Salt Satyagraha. He was placed in Meerut imprison for 18 months.



On February 22, 1958 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, one of the chief pioneers of the Indian flexibility battle passed away. For his priceless commitment to the country, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was after death granted India’s most elevated regular citizen respect, the ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1992.

photo via wikipedia


Maulana was a firm devotee to the conjunction of religions. His fantasy was that of a brought together autonomous India where Hindu and Muslims co-habited gently. In spite of the fact that this vision of Azad was smashed post segment of India, he remained a devotee. He was the originator of the Jamia Milia Islamia Institution in Delhi alongside individual khilafat pioneers which has bloomed into a prestigious University today. His birthday, November 11, is commended as National Education Day in India.

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