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Who were the Druids?
While religion was a major element in the social and political structure of the Celts it constituted only one aspect of the pan-Celtic association known as the priesthood of the Druids. This society succeeded in uniting many scattered Celtic tribes into a cohesive people through similarity of beliefs and laws. The Druids formed a large clergy which had many diverse and specialized functions. They are known to us by long passages in the works of the Greek and Latin historians and polygraphers: Caesar, Diodoros, Strabo, and Ammianaus Marcellinus, who enumerated their functions and powers. These writers, however, owe most of their information to Poseidonios and Timagenes.
A great number of Irish epic texts speak of the Druids. There are also many legal texts regarding the functions and powers of the Fili (poets and men of letters), who formed a corporation parallel and to some extent rivaling that of the Druids. The two bodies, however, lived side by side, were complementary to each other and, in earlier times, were associated in their organizations and privileges. Even so, Christianity spared the Fili but wrought total havoc with the Druids.
Where are the Druids from?
There is historical evidence of Druids in Ireland, Britain, and Gaul. Although we have no direct confirmation of Druids in the Celtic settlements of Spain, Italy, Galatia, and the Danube valley, there seems no reason for denying that they existed among those branches of the race. The travels and meetings of the Druids cemented the union of the Celtic peoples and encouraged a sense of kinship which might have given birth to unity. Some students believe that Druidism had its origin west of the Celtic counties.
These scholars have said that Druidism is not Celtic at all but originated with those peoples whom the Celts found established in the west of Europe, the builders of the megalithic monuments. Caesar tells us that Druidism first started in Britain, and that the Druids of Gaul used to go to Britain to visit famous schools and sanctuaries. British Druidism had an equally high reputation in Ireland, and the Irish Druids went to Britain to complete their education.
The Gauls of Italy had among them persons described as “Vates” (a word borrowed from the Celtic), who were similar to the Druids and organized like them. A comparative study of the druidic institution shows that it was indeed pan-Celtic and an essential part of the organization of Celtic society.
History shows clearly enough that Druidism emerged as an element of resistance to the Romans in Gaul and Britain and to Christianity in Ireland. It was assailed as an enemy with attacks taking the form of persecution in Gaul ( as evidenced by the campaigns of the Roman generals against sanctuaries in Britain ) and by a kind of degradation in Ireland.
It becomes apparent, then, that Druidism was an element of resistance because it was an element of cohesion. This fact lends further credence to the notion that druidism transcended both geographic boundaries and clan or tribal delineation.
The literature and law of Ireland was not written down until after the advent of Christianity. This work was performed by the Fili who, therefore, appear in a more favorable light than the Druids. However, if we boldly fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the Druids using what is known of the Fili, we get a picture of the Druids of Ireland which corresponds at every point to that of the Druids of Gaul.
From this we obtain a check on the accuracy of both portraits and a strong presumption that we are dealing with a common institution dating from the most distant past of the two peoples.
– Since you realize that the Celts had genuine metal defensive layer and networking mail, you’d most likely figure that they had some really sweet protective caps to run with their reinforcement too. Also, you’d be correct. Actually, the Celts had a cluster of truly insane cap outlines, one of which was found in Ciumesti, Romania (recollect, the Celts were across the board over all of Europe).
Here, an old Iron Age cemetery was found, in which 34 graves altogether were unearthed. Turns out these graves had a place with a rich Celtic chieftain, who was covered there alongside numerous items, for example, bronze weapons and defensive layer (as far as anyone knows to help him in life following death). Among these articles a fairly odd head protector was thought that it was comprised of an extensive winged animal of prey roosted on top, with its bronze wings spread out for all to see.
What’s truly cool about this protective cap is that the wings were likewise pivoted, which implied that they could fold here and there. Antiquarians accept that the chieftain would just wear the protective cap on uncommon events, as a fluttering head protector would end up being very much an irritation in fight. This protective cap wound up being a standout amongst the most known and recreated bits of Celtic craftsmanship. One just needs to take a gander at a photo of Asterix and Obelix to see the likeness.
– On top of their expansive voyages, the Celts cherished a battle and would battle for anybody at a cost. Celtic soldiers of fortune were well known for their notoriety in battle, and they were known not been selected by Ptolemy II, lord of Ptolemaic Egypt. The soldiers of fortune were good to the point that the lord expected that they may assume control Egypt for themselves, so he had them marooned on a betrayed island in the Nile. The Greeks additionally met the Celts, who at the time were extending their regions. This is known as the Gallic Invasion of the Balkans, and the Battle of Delphi was the highlight of this attack, which brought about a Celtic thrashing. Here, the Greeks were composed and battled together as a group, so they could undoubtedly vanquish the scattered Celts, who battled as people. Therefore, the Celts wound up being pushed out of Delphi in 279 B.C.
– In the event that I needed to pick one thing the Celts are most popular for, it would presumably be the way that they were headhunters. They accepted that the best prize in fight was their adversary’s head. This could originate from the way that the Celts had a religion like animism, in which they accepted that spirits and divine beings dwelled in streams, rocks, trees, mistletoe—you get the thought.
The human head was no exemption, as they accepted that a man’s spirit lived inside their heads.To the Celts, having an accumulation of heads was an indication of significant privilege and notoriety, in addition to it gave them gloating rights. Along these lines, they would even venture to beautifying their seats and the entryways of their homes with the separated leaders of their foes. For a correlation, its sort of like owning a great deal of lavish autos. We would gloat about owning an uncommon Ferrari or something of the sort, while the Celts would boast about owning the disjoined leader of an intense foe pioneer.
– At this point, the majority of you ought to have grabbed on the way that the Romans would make you look terrible, particularly on the off chance that you were their foe. As such, we have discovered that the Celts weren’t as awful as the Romans made them out to be (with the conceivable exemption of the entire headhunting thing). In any case, the Celts may have made them th which was tremendously better over the Romans: a schedule. Certainly the Romans had the Julian timetable, however the Celts had what is known as a Coligny schedule. It was found in Coligny, France (thus the name) in 1897. Aside from looking great, the schedule is comprised of various secretive metal pieces enhanced with complex markings, for example, lines, openings, numbers, and two or three Greek, Roman, and Celtic letters.
Aside from realizing that it was a datebook, researchers were confused for more than a century. On the other hand, in 1989, the logbook was at long last deciphered. It was discovered to be a lunar-sunlight based logbook, which ascertained the season of year in view of the cycles of the sun and moon. This exceptionally exact datebook was route comparatively radical, as it could precisely foresee the position of the sun at any given month later on. In the above feature, the educator who split the logbook’s riddle endeavors to clarify the framework (soon after the 12-moment mark). You have been cautioned however, as in the expressions of the confounded moderator, “Logbooks are frightfully convoluted things.”Perhaps all the more imperatively, this datebook is living evidence that the Celts were equipped for numerical and experimental thought. Just to show how precise this thing was, we should contrast it with the Roman schedule.
The contemporary Roman schedule was additionally thought to be very exact for its day, since it failed from the genuine sun based timetable by just 11.5 minutes a year. Nonetheless, after hundreds of years have passed, even a little error includes over the long haul. The Coligny logbook was so best in class contrasted with its Roman partner that the Romans would be commending the start of spring amidst August, while the Celts’ adaptation still stayed consistent with the genuine sun powered timetable.
– Here’s a bit back story: it is 58 B.C., and the Romans and Celts are all living calmly in their particular domains. Presently envision you’re Julius Caesar. Your political vocation is unremarkable in this way, you have a lot of obligation, and you have to truly demonstrate that you are some person. What might you do? Why obviously, attack the “basic and brutal” Celts—without a doubt they wouldn’t mind.
The Gallic Wars are frequently viewed as Julius Caesar’s most noteworthy military triumph. This was the start of the quick development of the Roman domain, in which Caesar efficiently vanquished a few Celtic tribes to pick up control over the territory. This Roman triumph would choose the destiny of the region known as Gaul (current France), which was led by a few Gallic tribes. This brought about Caesar acquiring a lot of greatness and commendation for his military triumphs. In any case, why did he precisely attack Gaul? As per Caesar himself, he was simply pushing back the attacking primitive tribes, however now, students of history have adapted something else. One of these attacking tribes were the Helvetii, which were at first situated close to the Alps.
This tribe were wanting to relocate to France under the assurance of Caesar, however when he won’t, they chose to go through Gallic domain. Caesar then expressed that Rome needed to ensure the Celts that were at that point in France, which he “secured” by slaughtering more than a quarter of a million individuals of the attacking tribes. He kept “ensuring” these tribes until they were in the long run all wiped out. Gaul wound up tumbling to the Romans.What does this have anything to do with the Celts being rich? Straightforward: First and preeminent, Caesar was a lawmaker. He frantically required money to pay his obligations, and he required a military victory to support his political profession. Celtic Gaul would furnish him with both, as he realized that the range was rich in gold stores.
In spite of the fact that it was realized that the Celts had gold coins and jewelery, up to this point it was just accepted that they had gained them through exchange. Turns out that in Gaul alone, there were more than 400 Celtic gold mines. Consequently, the Celts were amazingly well off no big surprise why Caesar needed to get his hands on their mines. Amusingly enough, the Romans began to mint their own particular gold coins after the victory of Gaul.
– Roman designers are typically attributed to be the first to assemble a solid system of streets that joined all of Europe together. Truth be told, its a recorded reality, isn’t that so? Wrong once more! In opposition to prevalent thinking, the Celts really had a preroman system of wooden streets that associated the settlements of different Celtic tribes so that they could take part in exchange.
The issue with wooden streets is that, because of their tendency, almost no confirmation stays of them since the greater part of them have spoiled away. Be that as it may, a couple boards have been found to be saved in swamps in Ireland, England and France. Since the Romans never really vanquished Ireland, we can securely say that these old boards were really piece of a Celtic street framework. Also, one can see more data about Celtic streets by finding out about Corlea Trackway, arranged in Ireland. Here, numerous parts of an old street were recuperated, and a segment of the street has been reproduced to give a thought of how it may have looked like back in its brilliant days.
– Since the Romans needed us the accept that the Celts were a cluster of graceless savages, one would expect that life probably been really dismal for Celtic ladies, correct? Ladies could have power, own territory, and even separate in Celtic culture, which was unfathomable in the traditional world. (Not at all like their Roman partners, Celtic ladies could likewise ascend the social step, either by acquiring status, or by accomplishing it.) Landowners were required to battle if their boss went to war, and if the landowner happened to be a lady, then she was relied upon to battle too.
Truth be told, ladies warriors could show young ladies and young men how to fight.They could even get to be Druids, who composed laws that protected all of Celtic culture, including the elderly, incapacitated, and kids. What’s truly intriguing about the recent is that kids were secured under Celtic law in view of their honesty. This is truly a difference to the Roman world, in which undesirable youngsters were relinquished and left to kick the bucket in refuse dumps. Turns out the Celts weren’t as awful as the Romans needed us to accept truth be told.
– Celtic Druids were similar to the non-douchebags of their day. Beside circling in long white robes and offering human penances, they did some really flawless stuff also. They prompted the boss and lords to authorize new laws (sort of like how the British government prompts the Queen today—beyond any doubt they’re her laws, however everybody realizes that the administration runs the nation), and they even went about as judges to uphold their own particular laws.
Druids were thought to be the smartest of the group on the grounds that they put in 20 years in preparing for their positions. Their insight extended from stargazing and Celtic legend to normal theory. Since they were the smartest men around, the Druids would regularly exhort villagers on when to plant their harvests, and even anticipated their prospects (or thereabouts they believed).Additionally, the Celtic Druids gave us a convention that is still with us right up ’til today.
Druids considered the oak tree to be heavenly, since they accepted that their divine beings were all around in streams, rocks, trees—anyplace, truly. As indicated by the Druids, the main thing holier and more supernatural than the oak was the mistletoe that developed on it. Today, individuals still accept various things why we have the Christmas convention of kissing under the mistletoe. So next time you’re clumsily remaining solitary under the mistletoe amid Christmas, accuse the Druids.
– A few antiquarians guarantee that there were Celts in Britain around 1180 B.C., while others contend that it was before. Notwithstanding, it is for the most part acknowledged that the Celts began to move from Central Europe in 400 B.C. They spread in all headings, that is, until they candidly met the Romans. The issue was that their Roman neighbors were a solitary, brought together realm, while the Celts were comprised of many tribes, who battled against one another as regularly as they joined together to battle the Romans.
Inevitably, some of these tribes were totally wiped out, some consented to be led by the Romans, while others were headed to the most distant corners of the referred to world, for example, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. (These groups of present day Celts are still around today, and endeavor to save Celtic society by means of The Celtic League.) Some of these voyaging Celts even wound up route as far away as Egypt and Greece.